5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

你想亲眼看到一株小西红柿从土里冒出来吗?只要从水果盘里拿几个健康成熟的西红柿,你就可以在花园里种了。不论是包装好的种子还是准备吃的西红柿,都可以按下面的步骤来操作。

一、选择你的方式

  1. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    从值得信任的地方买来种子。可以在卖种子的网站、当地苗圃或园艺师手里购买。
  2. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    选择成熟的西红柿自己晒种子。是的,你确实可以把成熟的西红柿里的种子挤出来用于种植。参考第二部分“发酵自己的种子”来学习如何处理湿润的种子。

5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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选择品种。西红柿大概有1000多个不同的品种。它们可以按三种方法分类,供你决定种植哪种。

  • 原生或杂交种: 原生种是从来没有经过杂交,一直不断生产的品种。因此,它们是最纯正的西红柿。杂交西红柿是两种西红柿的杂交后代。
  • 明确或不定: 这一分类描述的是植物生产果实的时间段。明确的植物只在某几周产果实,而不定的在生长季会一直产果实,直到天气变得太凉为止。
  • 外形: 西红柿的外形又被分为四种:球形,扁形,制酱番茄和樱桃番茄。球形是最受欢迎的品种,扁形是最大的,制酱番茄是用来做番茄酱的,樱桃番茄很小,可以一口吃掉,经常用来做沙拉。

二、发酵种子

  1. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    从健康的植株上挑选番茄。确保西红柿来自原生品种或者经过授粉的种子。如果种子来自于杂交种或者由化学药剂处理过,结果可能不太理想。
  2. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    将西红柿切成两半,把里面的东西挖出来放到塑料罐里。罐子的盖子最好很松,因为西红柿浆和种子会在罐子里放置几天。种子上面会长出一层霉菌。这一过程可以使种子的抵抗力增强,不容易得病,免得对下一代植物产生影响。
  3. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    为罐子加标签。如果你在发酵几种种子,一定要在罐子上贴标签,避免混淆。将盖子盖上,不需要盖严,这样氧气才能进入。
  4. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    放到没有阳光直射的温暖地点。发酵的过程不美也不好闻,所以还是放得远远的,不要和混合物接触比较好。
  5. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    每日搅拌一次发酵罐,直到表面长出一层霉菌。时间约为2-3天。确保长出霉菌后迅速将种子拿走,以防种子在发酵罐里发芽。
  6. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    收获种子。带上手套,擦除霉菌层。种子这会儿正呆在罐子底部呢。
  7. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    向罐子里倒水,以稀释混合物。让种子一直呆在罐子底部,不断地向罐子里倒水。小心,一定不要把种子冲走。
  8. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    用漏斗过滤,得到所有种子,彻底冲洗。
  9. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    将种子放到光滑的表面上,干燥几天。玻璃、陶瓷盘、烤盘、胶合板或窗纱都可以。如果放到纸上或者布上,之后干掉的种子经常很难取下来。晒干后,可以将它们放到密封的塑料袋里,准备种的时候再拿出来。袋上注明西红柿品种。

5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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种子放到阴暗干燥的地方。你也可以把它们放到冰箱的密封罐里,以营造出冬天的气候。不要冷冻,这会毁掉它们。

三、种植

  1. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    最后一次下霜前6-8周将种子种在室内。为了准备移栽,天还很冷的时候,先将种子种在室内。早春的低温会妨碍西红柿生长,甚至会杀死幼苗。先种在室内可以提高成活率。
  2. 购买塑料泥炭盆或者类似的小盆。这些在当地苗圃或者花园工具店有售。
  3. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    泥炭盆里装上土壤混合物。混合物可以是三分之一泥炭,三分之一粗蛭石和三分之一堆肥。
  4. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    在每个盆里约0.6厘米深处播种2-3颗种子。上面覆上土,轻轻地拍实。
  5. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    将容器储存在20-26℃的地方,直到开始发芽。发芽时,放置在可以全天晒到太阳的地方或者生长灯下。
  6. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    最开始的7-10天每天浇水。看到发芽后,就可以不用浇那么频繁了。大多数植物都容易被过多的水淹死(导致烂根)而不是渴死,因此发芽后要谨慎浇水。
  7. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    每日检查花盆。一旦植物破土而出,它们就开始快速生长了。

四、移栽植物

  1. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    如果你的西红柿已经长到至少15厘米,此时外面不再下霜的话,你就可以移栽了。
  2. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    适应外界条件。准备移栽的一周前,西红柿需要逐渐适应室外的温度。逐渐让它暴露在阳光下,先放置在一个部分荫蔽的地方,然后每天延长植物放置在室外的时间。
  3. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    准备好移栽地点。这个地方需要排水良好,并且有足够的有机物。

    • 可以在土壤里混入泥炭土以增强排水能力。泥炭土可以吸自身重量10-20倍的水,而被认为对环境有害,卖的也很贵。泥炭土的价格很高有几个外部因素,挖排水沟,耙并且烘干泥炭都需要燃料,包装和长距离运输需要成本。
    • 然而,如果你还是想用它,就挖掉小半的土,混入等体积的泥炭。然后将混合物重新放回种植区域。
    • 如果你担心泥炭土的副作用,可以用木头做一个简易的地面花园种植箱。材料为两块2.5×20厘米的雪松板,长为20厘米。雪松是种植箱的理想材料,因为它不易腐烂。
  4. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    测试土壤pH值。西红柿在pH6-7之间生长最好。

    • 当地的农业推广站一般都有土壤测试表格,袋子和说明书。调整pH之后,重新测一遍。
    • 如果pH值低于6,添加白云石石灰可以使pH升高。
    • 如果高于7,加一些硫颗粒就可以了。
  5. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    挖一个深为5厘米的坑。坑必须要这么深,你才能将西红柿移栽进去,并且能保证有四分之一的植物露在土外面。铲一铲子堆肥垫在坑里。这可以为植物提供额外的营养,并避免移栽带来的不适应。
  6. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    小心地把植物从盆里取出,移到室外。尽量不要碰到根。移栽后的深度要能使幼苗最开始长出的新叶接触到覆盖的土壤。轻轻地拍打种植区域。
  7. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    用鱼粉,鸡粪或者与水充分混合好的低氮高磷的有机物施肥。每年都要施一次肥。
  8. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    将木桩或棚架放置在植物旁。它可以为西红柿提供支撑和依附物,成熟后也更容易采摘。小心不要碰到根。

五、植物生长养护

  1. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    经常给植物浇水施肥。浇水要浇在根部,浇在叶子上容易得白粉病。每周为西红柿喷洒液态海藻和堆肥,以增加果实产量。
  2. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    除去植物的腋芽。如果想要促进植物生长,提高产量,用手将植物的腋芽除去。它们是从主茎上分出的小的枝条。最上面可以留一些,以遮蔽阳光。
  3. 5种方法来从种子开始种西红柿

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    产量最佳的时候收获。移栽后大约60天会长出果实。果实开始成熟时需要每天查看,以确保最佳风味。轻轻地扭掉果实,避免从藤处就开始拉扯。

小提示

  • 有的种子需要很长时间风干。如果有必要的话,甚至要几周或者更长。
  • 扁形西红柿特别适合做切片面包和三明治。意式和制酱西红柿则用来烹饪,装罐和榨汁。樱桃西红柿用于沙拉。
  • 吊扇有利于改善室内空气流通条件。
  • 种植后,每周浇水一至三次。

警告

  • 害虫会折磨你的西红柿,包括地老虎,粉虱和线虫。
  • 如果温度高于29℃,千万不要把种子直接晾晒在阳光下。即使是低于29℃,深色的种子也很容易受伤,因为它们要比浅色种子吸热多。
  • 类似枯萎病和黄萎病的疾病都很常见。种植抗病品种,采取防治措施,保持花园整洁可以预防疾病。

警告:生活小百科登载此文出于传递更多信息之目的,文章内容仅供参考,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其描述。

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